Traumatic Brain Injury

Traumatic Brain Injury is an alarmingly common disorder. 

To assist you in understanding more about this condition we have presented the following article.

In the UK, the incidence of traumatic brain injury hospital admissions is over 270 people per 100,000 of the population yearly. In the USA, 5.3 million people ,more than 2% of the population live with a disability as a result of brain injury. The accelerated forces of impact of the skull are the cause of the majority of head injuries. Brain tissue is relatively soft and sheers, tears and cracks against the skull. 

Common cause of traumatic brain injury;

  • Road traffic accidents -  50% 
  • Falls - 20 to 25% 
  • Sport and recreational injuries - 15% 
  • Assaults - 10% 

Individuals who are most likely to have head injuries; 

  • Males are three times more likely than females 
  • People over 65 years are also more at risk 
  • People under the influence of alcohol and with risk-taking activities 
  • People who have had a previous head injury 

 The two classifications of brain injury; 

Primary damage 

  • General nerve damage. At the moment of impact the brain may strain the microscopic nerve, fibre connections and sheath may be stretched and ruptured. 
  • Bruising. The most common from of contact are along the hard ridges inside the skull, damaging the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. 
  • Haemorrhage and haematoma-bleeding. If any blood vessel tears and a blood clot forms this may impact on the brain. 
Secondary Damage 

  • Swelling of the brain-oedema. The brain may swell which reduces the flow of nutrients to the cells and raises the internal cranial pressure. 
  • Infections. If this skull is open and exposed to the outside, foreign bodies and germs may penetrate the brain. 
  • Cellular changes. A sequence of microscopic events are triggered in any event of cellular damage and the end result can lead to cell death.
  • Secondary bleeding. Bleeding may occur at another site quite separate or remote to the initial impact. 

Consequences of a Brain Injury 

Brain injury functionally may be evident from physical (weakness, altered sensory changes, weakness, epilepsy and balanced disturbances ), cognition (memory impairment, slow to information-processing, visuo- spatial problems, language difficulties, difficulty with insight and awareness, and impairment of executive skills) and emotion and behaviour (temper outbursts, rapid mood swings, emotional stability, impulsiveness, anxiety and depression)

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Traumatic Brain Injury